Al-Shabaab was originally formed by individuals who disagreed with or could not make it in the elitist hierarchical system of Al-IttihadAl-Islamiya (AIAI), which later became Al-I’tisam(AI).Not having a say on the increasingly non-violent Jihad path being taken by AIpushed these individuals to break away and form an organisation that would continue the Jihad without imposing elitist restrictions on upward mobility within the group. Formal qualificationwas never a requirement to rise up the AS ranks. Instead, belief in the system, obedience, and ability to do the job were and remainthe only requirements.Consequently, Al-Shababhas always lacked a large number of senior cadres with higher education, though the original founders were generally better educated -and more often from an urban background -than itscurrent leaders…

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