This article is about collecting metadata from photographs. Metadata is an information which is created for every file’s format. Examples for metadata: file created date and time, last edited etc.
In this article, we will take a picture from iPhone and analyze that Image to collect various metadata for collected evidence. Before starting your forensic investigation for images, you should able to understand EXIF DATA.
EXIF DATA – Tracking Photos
In olden days photographers were forced to carry a pen and a notepad with them to record important information such as shutter speed, aperture, and date.
If the image is the only evidence the forensic analyst will find difficulties to find photo captured data and time etc.
EXIF data which is Exchangeable image file format according to Japan Electronic Industries Development Association /Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association/Camera & Imaging Products Association specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smart phones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras.
The metadata tags defined in the Exif standard
- Date and time information: Digital cameras will record the current date and time and save this in the metadata.
- Camera settings: This includes static information such as the camera model and make, and information that varies with each image orientation rotation, aperture, shutter speed, focal length, metering mode, and ISO speed.
- Copyright information.
The Exif format has standard tags for location information. As of 2014 many cameras and most mobile phones have a built-in GPS receiver that stores the location information in the Exif header when a picture is taken.
Some other cameras have a separate GPS receiver that fits into the flash connector.By using a map or mapping software.
The process of adding geographic information to a photograph is known as geotagging. Photo-sharing communities like Panoramio or Flickr equally allow their users to upload geocoded pictures or to add geolocation information online.
Privacy and Security
Since the Exif tag contains metadata about the photo, it can pose a privacy problem. For example, a photo taken with a GPS-enabled camera can reveal the exact location and time it was taken.Many users may be unaware that their photos are tagged by default in this manner.
Many users may be unaware that their photos are tagged by default in this manner.
Extracted Metadata from Image
Forensics analyst will get information about the mobile model, make, sensing method, bits per sample etc.You can use online tools to analyze Exif data for your Image.
Image GPS metadata
Exact Latitude and Longitude and GPS Position For Image.
Geolocation of Image in satellite map
So you can use online geo image locator categorized websites to analyse Images, illustrated picture above was captured iPhone 6 and Picture was captured in Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram Zoo, India.
Exact GPS location was traced with Satellite Map.